- Other Disorders
Causes due to head injury. Symptoms dependent upon the severity of injury. More serious symptoms would lead to a, loss of consciousness, followed by a lurid period, later headaches, altered mental status, seizures, focal neurological defects, and eventually coma. Treatment surgical drainage of blood, reversal of coagulopathy.
Caused by an increased volume of CSF within the cranium, as a result of an obstruction, caused by either a tumor or inflammation. Or an overproduction of CSF. Symptoms will include, an enlargement of the skull, headaches, visual disturbances, nausea and vomiting. Treatment, Ventriculoperitoneal shunt, removal of obstruction
Development of a fluid-filled cyst within the spinal chord, which over time may enlarge and damage the spinal chord. Symptoms may include; muscle weakness, loss of reflexes, loss of sensitivity to pain and temperature of the upper extremities. Treatment, surgical drainage.
Pyogenic and Viral Meningitis
Infection of the meninges that surround the brain and the spinal chord, caused by either a viral or bacterial infection. Symptoms in young children; high fever with cold hands and feet, may feel agitated and not wanting to be touched. Very sleepy with difficulty awakening, confused and unresponsive, may develop a blotchy red rash. In older children and adults; severe headache, vomiting, high temperature, stiff neck, sensitivity to light, rapid breathing, general feeling of being unwell, and may have a skin rash. Treatment, bacterial meningitis treated with antibiotics. Viral meningitis is a self-limiting illness.
Causes include; toxins, intracranial pathology, epilepsy. Symptoms, usually preceded by aura (odd smell/vision) followed by seizure which may be partial to a lapse of consciousness and may be accompanied by myoclonic (sudden, brief contractions). Treatment, anti epileptic drugs, treat underlying cause.
An autoimmune condition that affects nerves and muscles. Mainly affects voluntary controlled muscles. Symptoms include; muscle weakness that worsens with fatigue. Treatment; anticholinesterase drugs to prevent the breakdown of acetylcholine which helps the muscle contract. Thymectomy (removal of the thymus gland to help the immune system to rebalance, immunosuppression, plasmapheresis if severe flare.