- Metabolic Disorders
Decreased carbon dioxide (an acid) or increased bicarbonate (a base) levels make the body too alkaline. Hypochloremic alkalosis is caused by an extreme lack or loss of chloride, which can occur with prolonged vomiting.Hypokalemic alkalosis is caused by the kidneys' response to an extreme lack or loss of potassium, which can occur when people take certain diuretic medications. Compensated alkalosis occurs when the body returns the acid - base balance to normal in cases of alkalosis, but bicarbonate and carbon dioxide levels remain abnormal. Symptoms include; confusion (can progress to stupor or coma), hand tremor, light-headedness, muscle twitching, nausea, vomiting, numbness or tingling in the face, hands, or feet, prolonged muscle spasms (tetany). Treatment; treat underlying cause, fluid replacement.
Occurs when lungs cannot remove all the carbon dioxide that it produces. Caused by, acute lung disease, chronic lung disease, CNS depression. Symptoms include; hyperventilation, somnolence (state of sleepiness), Treatment; address underlying condition.
Caused by hyperventilation, fever, anxiety, high altitude, pregnancy, salicylate overdose, pneumonia, sepsis, pulmonary oedema, pulmonary embolism or cirrhosis. This leads to low levels of carbon dioxide in the blood. Symptoms include; dizziness, lightheadedness, numbness of the hands and feet. Treatment, address underlying cause, breath into a paper bag, which will increase re-uptake of carbon dioxide.