- Disorders of the Cervix and Uterus
Inflammation or irritation of the lining of the uterus, caused by infections such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, tuberculosis, or mixtures of normal vaginal bacteria. Symptoms include; abdominal distention or swelling, abnormal vaginal bleeding, abnormal vaginal discharge, discomfort with bowel movement (constipation may occur), fever, General discomfort, uneasiness or ill feeling (malaise), lower abdominal or pelvic pain. Treatment; antibiotics.
A condition in which small pieces of the womb lining (the endometrium) are found outside the womb. Exact cause is unknown. Symptoms include: painful or heavy periods, pain in the lower abdomen, pelvis or lower back, pain during sexual intercourse, bleeding between periods, fertility problems. Treatment; management of pain, oral contraceptives, surgical removal/coagulation of lesion.
Aetiology unknown, benign neoplasm of the genital tract. Symptoms include; profuse menstruation,pain, possible anaemia as a result. Treatment; myomectomy, hysterectomy, uterine artery embolization.
Risk factors include; age, excess oestrogen, excess weight, nulliparity, diabetes, hormone replacement therapy, Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), late menopause. Symptoms include; periods that are heavier than usual, vaginal bleeding inbetween normal periods, pain in the back, legs or pelvis, loss of appetite, tiredness, nausea. Treatment; total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, radiation therapy.
Dysplasia Carcinoma in Situs and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix
Associated with human papilloma virus (HPV), early age of first intercourse and multiple sexual partners. Symptoms include; irregular vaginal bleeding, postcoital spotting, cervical ulceration, non-purulent discharge, dysuria. Can lead to obstruction of ureters and lead to renal failure. Treatment; hysterectomy, radiation therapy, prevention with HPV vaccine.